International Journal of Advanced and Integrated Medical Sciences

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Reason behind Drinking: A Cross-sectional Study onAlcohol Use among Adult Males in Bareilly District,Uttar Pradesh, India
  IJAIMS
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Reason behind Drinking: A Cross-sectional Study onAlcohol Use among Adult Males in Bareilly District,Uttar Pradesh, India
1Himalaya Singh, 2Hari S Joshi, 3Arun Singh, 4Rashmi Katyal, 5Deepak Upadhyay
1Junior Resident, 2Professor and Head, 3Professor, 4,5AssociateProfessor
1-5Department of Community Medicine, Rohilkhand MedicalCollege & Hospital, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India
Corresponding Author:
Hari S Joshi, Professor and HeadDepartment of Community Medicine, Rohilkhand MedicalCollege & Hospital, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India,
Phone: +919415833751,
e-mail: drjoshiharish@rediffmail.com
10.5005/jp-journals-10050-10069
 
ABSTRACT
Introduction: Alcoholic beverages have been a part of sociallife for millennia, yet societies have always found it difficult tounderstand or restrain their use. Different societies not onlyhave different sets of beliefs and rules about drinking, butthey also show very different outcomes when people consumealcohol.
Aims and objectives: This study is conducted to assessthe reasons behind consuming alcohol among adult males ofBareilly district, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Materials and methods: A community-based cross-sectionalstudy was carried out on males aged ≥15 years in Bareillydistrict. Thirty clusters were chosen from this population byprobability proportional to size sampling, and then from theseclusters, in each cluster, houses were taken out and from each,one adult male was selected till the sample size was achieved.The prevalence of alcohol usage among males in Uttar Pradesh(by National Family Health Survey 372) is 25.3%. Taking 10%of nonresponsive rate and design effect of 2, calculated samplesize is 632.
Results: Totally 699 adult males participated in the study andanalyzed data show that 31% males are current drinkers, 5%are past drinkers, and rest are teetotalers. Most of the studysubjects indulged in this habit due to peer pressure (58.7%),while 24.9% reported that the cause was a curiosity to drink.Only 7.0% were because of conforming to social status ornorms. The majority of the study subjects continued to drinkin order to cheer-up (44.6%) in order to relax (40.8%), whereasonly 16% current drinkers reported the cause as "peer pressure"or "think and work better."
Conclusion: We can conclude that the most common reasonto start alcohol habit is peer pressure and people continue itto cheer themselves.
Keywords: Abuse, Alcohol, Reasons.
How to cite this article: Singh H, Joshi HS, Singh A, Katyal R,Upadhyay D. Reason behind Drinking: A Cross-sectional Studyon Alcohol Use among Adult Males in Bareilly District, UttarPradesh, India. Int J Adv Integ Med Sci 2017;2(1):29-31.
Source of Support: Nil
Conflicts of Interest: None
 
 

 
INTRODUCTION

The human experience abounds with evidence, bothcross-cultural and international, that people can usealcohol in a variety of responsible and fruitful ways.1

Alcohol consumption has been an accepted socialpractice since time immemorial. However, its abuse isconsidered as the world's third largest risk factor fordisease and disability.

Alcohol has been consumed in India at least since theVedic period of 2000-800 bc.2

Different societies not only have different sets ofbeliefs and rules about drinking, but they also show verydifferent outcomes when people do drink.3

Over the course of socialization, people learn aboutdrunkenness what their society knows about drunkenness;and, accepting and acting upon the understandingsthus imparted to them, they become the living confirmationof their society's teachings.4

Alcoholic beverages have been a part of social life formillennia, yet societies have always found it difficult tounderstand or restrain their usage.5

A group that views drinking as a ritually significantact is not likely to develop many alcohol-related problemsof any sort, whereas another group, which sees it primarilyas a way to escape from stress or to demonstrateone's strength, is at high risk of developing problemswith drinking.6

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

To assess the reasons behind drinking among adult malesof Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A community-based cross-sectional study was carriedout in Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh, India, fromNovember 2015 to January 2016. Males aged ≥15 years,who have completed 15 years of age at the time of datacollection, and residing in the study area were includedin the sampling universe as the study population.

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Himalaya Singh et al

The prevalence of alcohol use among males in UttarPradesh (by National Family Health Survey 372) is 25.3%.Taking 10% of nonresponsive rate and design effect of 2,calculated sample size is 632.

Bareilly district has a population of 4,448,359 residingin 2,437 villages and wards of 6 subdistricts (as per census2011). Thirty clusters were chosen from this population byprobability proportional to size (PPS) sampling, and thenfrom these clusters, in each cluster, houses were taken outand from each, one adult male was selected till the samplesize was achieved; 22 individuals were selected fromeach cluster by simple random sampling method usingrandom table. If more than one adult male was present inone house, one adult male was chosen by lottery method.If no adult male was in the house, house was locked, orindividual was not willing to participate after repetitivecounseling, we moved further according to random table.The schedule was prepared by the investigator beforeundertaking the study, which includes both open-endedand close-ended questions. It was pretested by carryingout the pilot study with a sample of 65 subjects (10% ofsample size) to check the feasibility of the study. Those65 subjects were not to be included in the study. Totally,699 participants were included in the study.

Data were collected after taking clearance from theinstitutional ethical committee. All participants wereexplained about the objectives of the study and an informedwritten consent was obtained. Face-to-face interviews wereconducted after explaining the purpose, benefits, risks, andensuring the anonymity and confidentiality of the study.

The result was displayed with the help of tables accordingto the aim and objectives of the study. Valid informationwas drawn and discussed with the other studies.

RESULTS

A community-based cross-sectional study was conductedin Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Thirty clusterswere chosen by PPS sampling. Totally, 699 adult malesaged ≥15 years have participated in the study.

Table 1: Distribution of the current drinker in relation to thereasons for first drink
Reason behind Drinking: A Cross-sectional Study on Alcohol Use among Adult Males in Bareilly District, Uttar Pradesh, India
*Multiple responses were given; #other reasons were as a partof medicine (1.0%); to be relieved from physical exertion (4.6%);out of desire (2.2%), and due to job in army (5.2%)

 
Reason behind Drinking: A Cross-sectional Study on Alcohol Use among Adult Males in Bareilly District, Uttar Pradesh, India
Graph 1: In Bareilly district, 31% adult males are currentdrinkers, 5% are past drinkers, and rest are teetotalers

Data were analyzed and observed that in Bareillydistrict 31% adult males are current drinkers (i.e., thosewho accepted drinking alcohol during the past 1 year7),5% are past drinkers (i.e., those who have not taken anyalcohol drink during the past 1 year), and the rest areteetotalers (i.e., those who have not taken any alcoholdrink ever). Most common reason to start alcohol useis peer pressure (58.7%) and to continuing it is to cheerthemselves (Graph 1).

Table 1 depicts that most of the study subjectsindulged in this habit due to peer pressure (58.7%), while24.9% reported that the cause was a curiosity to drink.Only 7.0% started the habit to conform to social statusor norms.

Table 2 reveals that majority of the study subjectscontinued to drink to cheer up (44.6%), in order to relax(40.8%), whereas only 16% current drinkers reported thecause to peer pressure or think and work better.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION<

In the present study, most of the study subjects indulgedin this habit due to peer pressure (58.7%) and only 7.0%to conform to social status or norms. They continued todrink in order to cheer up (44.6%) and in order to relax(40.8%).

Table 2: Distribution of current drinkers in relation to thereasons for continuing drinking
Reason behind Drinking: A Cross-sectional Study on Alcohol Use among Adult Males in Bareilly District, Uttar Pradesh, India
*Multiple responses were given; #other reasons were beinghabitual (4.1%), due to physical exertion (2.1%), out of desire(3.1%), due to job (3.3%), and its use as a medicine (1.4%)

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Reason behind Drinking: A Cross-sectional Study on Alcohol Use among Adult Males

Jukkala et al5 in their study in Moscow reported thatwomen having regular contact with friends also hadmore than twice the odds of binge drinking comparedwith those with little contact with friends, while no effectwas found among men.

These findings were consistent with the findingsof Ghulam et al,8 Meena et al,9 Negi et al,10 and Khoslaet al,11 while not consistent with those of Girish et al12and Singh et al.13

Most common reason for the start of drinking waspeer pressure and for continuation was to cheer up.

There is an element of recall bias in the present study,which is a limitation of the study.

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  4. Heath, D.B. Sociocultural variants in alcoholism. In:Pattison, E.M.; Kaufman, E., editors. Encyclopedic handbookof alcoholism. New York: Gardner Press; 1982. p. 426-440.

 
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